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docker-compose初试及命令基础

2022年07月18日27lidabo

以一个简单的lnmp.yaml的配置文件进行讲解docker-compose命令的基础讲解,熟练掌握命令

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[root@docker lnmp]# cat lnmp.yaml  
version: '3' 
services: 
  nginx: 
    image: nginx 
    ports: 
      - "80:80" 
    links: 
      - php:php 
    volumes: 
      - "/www:/usr/local/nginx/html" 
  php: 
    image: php 
    expose: 
      - "9000" 
    volumes: 
      - "/www:/usr/local/nginx/html" 
  db: 
    image: mysql 
    ports: 
      - "3306:3306" 
    environment: 
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: redhat 
      MYSQL_DATABASE: wordpress 
      MYSQL_USER: wordpress 
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: wordpress
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上面配置文件的关于编写的参数暂时不进行讲解,这里只进行关于docker-compose的命令

[root@docker ~]# docker-compose --help      
Define and run multi-container applications with Docker. 
 
Usage: 
  docker-compose [-f <arg>...] [options] [COMMAND] [ARGS...] 
  docker-compose -h|--help

看用法的定义就是利用docker定义和运行多个容器应用

Options: 
  -f, --file FILE             Specify an alternate compose file (default: docker-compose.yml) 
  -p, --project-name NAME     Specify an alternate project name (default: directory name)

默认如果没有指定具体的compose配置文件,那么就docker-compose.yml,并且如果不指定项目名称,默认就是文件夹的name

up                 Create and start containers

现在利用command中的up进行创建并启动容器(多个容器,安装配置文件中,至于顺序现在不讲解)

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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml up 
Creating lnmp_php_1 ...  
Creating lnmp_db_1 ...  
Creating lnmp_db_1 
Creating lnmp_php_1 ... done 
Creating lnmp_nginx_1 ...  
Creating lnmp_db_1 ... done
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后面的一大堆输出,这里不进行全部显示了,创建并启动好了容器后,如何查看运行的状态呢?

ps                 List containers
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose ps           
Name   Command   State   Ports 
------------------------------

为什么这里没有显示呢?因为配置文件名称不是docker-compose.yml,所以在执行一系列命令时需要加上-f lnmp.yaml

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml ps 
    Name                  Command               State           Ports          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
lnmp_db_1      docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld      Up      0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp 
lnmp_nginx_1   /usr/local/nginx/sbin/ngin ...   Up      0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp     
lnmp_php_1     /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm      Up      9000/tcp  

由于配置文件lnmp.yaml在当前目录,这里可以进行绝对路径:

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f /root/compose_project/lnmp/lnmp.yaml  ps 
    Name                  Command               State           Ports          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
lnmp_db_1      docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld      Up      0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp 
lnmp_nginx_1   /usr/local/nginx/sbin/ngin ...   Up      0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp     
lnmp_php_1     /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm      Up      9000/tcp

由上面可以看出将所有的容器都显示出来,如何指定显出某一个容器呢?

[root@docker ~]# docker-compose ps --help 
List containers. 
 
Usage: ps [options] [SERVICE...]

一般的command命令都可以带上SERVICE,这里的service是什么呢?就是配置文件中定义的services服务,配置文件中定义了三个:nginx、php、db(不能写错service名称)

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f /root/compose_project/lnmp/lnmp.yaml  ps nginx 
    Name                  Command               State         Ports        
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
lnmp_nginx_1   /usr/local/nginx/sbin/ngin ...   Up      0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp

name这一列代表的是容器名称,而不是service名称

[root@docker lnmp]# docker ps -a 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES 
a5747e115947        nginx               "/usr/local/nginx/..."   6 minutes ago       Up 6 minutes        0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp       lnmp_nginx_1 
508ac0a6890c        php                 "/usr/local/php/sb..."   6 minutes ago       Up 6 minutes        9000/tcp                 lnmp_php_1 
aaa3cc6f1040        mysql               "docker-entrypoint..."   6 minutes ago       Up 6 minutes        0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp   lnmp_db_1

name的组成由project+service组成(后面的_1本人认为是构建的次数,第一次构建up就代表1吧)

If you change a service’s Dockerfile or the contents of its build directory, run docker-compose build to rebuild it.
docker-compose up --build或者docker-compose build

config:

config             Validate and view the Compose file

利用config命令可以打印处配置文件的内容和service名称以及volumes信息

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f /root/compose_project/lnmp/lnmp.yaml config --services 
php 
nginx 
db
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f /root/compose_project/lnmp/lnmp.yaml config  
services: 
  db: 
    environment: 
      MYSQL_DATABASE: wordpress 
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: wordpress 
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: redhat 
      MYSQL_USER: wordpress 
    image: mysql 
    ports: 
    - 3306:3306/tcp 
  nginx: 
    image: nginx 
    links: 
    - php:php 
    ports: 
    - 80:80/tcp 
    volumes: 
    - /www:/usr/local/nginx/html:rw 
  php: 
    expose: 
    - '9000' 
    image: php 
    volumes: 
    - /www:/usr/local/nginx/html:rw 
version: '3.0'
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f /root/compose_project/lnmp/lnmp.yaml config --volumes

down:停止并删除容器、网络、镜像、数据卷

down               Stop and remove containers, networks, images, and volumes
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml down 
Stopping lnmp_nginx_1 ... done 
Stopping lnmp_db_1    ... done 
Stopping lnmp_php_1   ... done 
Removing lnmp_nginx_1 ... done 
Removing lnmp_db_1    ... done 
Removing lnmp_php_1   ... done 
Removing network lnmp_default 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml ps   
Name   Command   State   Ports 
------------------------------ 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker ps -a 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
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down也带有其他的参数:

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Options: 
    --rmi type          Remove images. Type must be one of: 
                        'all': Remove all images used by any service. 
                        'local': Remove only images that don't have a custom tag 
                        set by the `image` field. 
    -v, --volumes       Remove named volumes declared in the `volumes` section 
                        of the Compose file and anonymous volumes 
                        attached to containers. 
    --remove-orphans    Remove containers for services not defined in the 
                        Compose file
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exec:在运行的容器中执行命令:

exec               Execute a command in a running container
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml exec db env    
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin 
HOSTNAME=aaa3cc6f1040 
TERM=xterm 
MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=redhat 
MYSQL_PASSWORD=wordpress 
MYSQL_USER=wordpress 
MYSQL_DATABASE=wordpress 
GOSU_VERSION=1.7 
MYSQL_MAJOR=5.7 
MYSQL_VERSION=5.7.20-1debian8 
HOME=/root
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db是指定了在哪一个service中执行env命令

images:列出镜像

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml images 
 Container     Repository    Tag       Image Id      Size  
---------------------------------------------------------- 
lnmp_db_1      mysql        latest   5709795eeffa   389 MB 
lnmp_nginx_1   nginx        latest   c3babfeba09b   551 MB 
lnmp_php_1     php          latest   8902ce599658   1 GB  

参数-q:列出镜像的id

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml images -q 
5709795eeffac51eca46cf40ab36669aad27e8cb4b0e91876d5e9f7bafad6acb 
c3babfeba09bab70a8e3b7e8d734ee274af4a02ed8b9b4d286cd58caf64dbdc5 
8902ce599658633ee95e270843b37daabe2e0dc298861ac8c25f5f7e11a7de1e

kill:杀死容器

kill               Kill containers
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[root@docker ~]# docker-compose kill --help   
Force stop service containers. 
 
Usage: kill [options] [SERVICE...] 
 
Options: 
    -s SIGNAL         SIGNAL to send to the container. 
                      Default signal is SIGKILL.
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可以看见后面也可以指定哪一个service

logs:将容器中的日志进行输出

logs               View output from containers
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[root@docker ~]# docker-compose logs --help  
View output from containers. 
 
Usage: logs [options] [SERVICE...] 
 
Options: 
    --no-color          Produce monochrome output. 
    -f, --follow        Follow log output. 
    -t, --timestamps    Show timestamps. 
    --tail="all"        Number of lines to show from the end of the logs 
                        for each container.
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将db的日志输出最后的10行:

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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml logs -t --tail db       
ERROR: tail flag must be all or a number 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml logs -t --tail="10" db 
Attaching to lnmp_db_1 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.618652188Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.618090Z 0 [Warning] 'db' entry 'sys mysql.sys@localhost' ignored in --skip-name-resolve mode. 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.618654153Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.618104Z 0 [Warning] 'proxies_priv' entry '@ root@localhost' ignored in --skip-name-resolve mode. 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.621872173Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.620524Z 0 [Warning] 'tables_priv' entry 'user mysql.session@localhost' ignored in --skip-name-resolve mode. 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.621897721Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.620616Z 0 [Warning] 'tables_priv' entry 'sys_config mysql.sys@localhost' ignored in --skip-name-resolve mode. 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.658532597Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.658110Z 0 [Note] Event Scheduler: Loaded 0 events 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.660827605Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.658335Z 0 [Note] mysqld: ready for connections. 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.660852816Z Version: '5.7.20'  socket: '/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock'  port: 3306  MySQL Community Server (GPL) 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.660857339Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.658347Z 0 [Note] Executing 'SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES;' to get a list of tables using the deprecated partition engine. You may use the startup option '--disable-partition-engine-check' to skip this check.  
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.660861018Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.658349Z 0 [Note] Beginning of list of non-natively partitioned tables 
db_1     | 2017-11-09T14:48:24.679766350Z 2017-11-09T14:48:24.679398Z 0 [Note] End of list of non-natively partitioned tables
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pause:暂停service:

pause              Pause services
[root@docker ~]# docker-compose pause --help 
Pause services. 
 
Usage: pause [SERVICE...]

将db这个service进行暂停:

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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml pause db 
Pausing lnmp_db_1 ... done 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml ps 
    Name                  Command               State            Ports          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
lnmp_db_1      docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld      Paused   0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp 
lnmp_nginx_1   /usr/local/nginx/sbin/ngin ...   Up       0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp     
lnmp_php_1     /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm      Up       9000/tcp 
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unpause:将暂停的service进行恢复:

unpause            Unpause services
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml unpause db 
Unpausing lnmp_db_1 ... done 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml ps 
    Name                  Command               State           Ports          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
lnmp_db_1      docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld      Up      0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp 
lnmp_nginx_1   /usr/local/nginx/sbin/ngin ...   Up      0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp     
lnmp_php_1     /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm      Up      9000/tcp 
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port:查看端口映射信息:

port               Print the public port for a port binding
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[root@docker ~]# docker-compose port --help  
Print the public port for a port binding. 
 
Usage: port [options] SERVICE PRIVATE_PORT 
 
Options: 
    --protocol=proto  tcp or udp [default: tcp] 
    --index=index     index of the container if there are multiple 
                      instances of a service [default: 1]
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml port db 3306 
0.0.0.0:3306

restart:重启service:

restart            Restart services
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[root@docker ~]# docker-compose restart --help 
Restart running containers. 
 
Usage: restart [options] [SERVICE...] 
 
Options: 
  -t, --timeout TIMEOUT      Specify a shutdown timeout in seconds. 
                             (default: 10)
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将nginx这个service进行重启:

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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml restart nginx 
Restarting lnmp_nginx_1 ... done 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml ps 
    Name                  Command               State           Ports          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
lnmp_db_1      docker-entrypoint.sh mysqld      Up      0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp 
lnmp_nginx_1   /usr/local/nginx/sbin/ngin ...   Up      0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp     
lnmp_php_1     /usr/local/php/sbin/php-fpm      Up      9000/tcp 
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rm:删除已经停止的服务容器,没有停止删除不了

rm                 Remove stopped containers
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[root@docker ~]# docker-compose rm --help 
Removes stopped service containers. 
 
By default, anonymous volumes attached to containers will not be removed. You 
can override this with `-v`. To list all volumes, use `docker volume ls`. 
 
Any data which is not in a volume will be lost. 
 
Usage: rm [options] [SERVICE...] 
 
Options: 
    -f, --force   Don't ask to confirm removal 
    -s, --stop    Stop the containers, if required, before removing 
    -v            Remove any anonymous volumes attached to containers 
    -a, --all     Deprecated - no effect.
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml rm 
No stopped containers

如果加上-s/--stop那么就会先将服务进行停止,然后询问你是否删除:

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml rm -s db 
Stopping lnmp_db_1 ... done 
Going to remove lnmp_db_1 
Are you sure? [yN] 

-f:代表在删除的过程中不会询问你是否删除,而是直接进行删除

run:运行一次性命令

run                Run a one-off command
[root@docker ~]# docker-compose run --help 
Run a one-off command on a service. 
 
For example: 
 
    $ docker-compose run web python manage.py shell

scale:扩展容器,为service设置多个容器:

scale              Set number of containers for a service
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[root@docker ~]# docker-compose scale --help 
Set number of containers to run for a service. 
 
Numbers are specified in the form `service=num` as arguments. 
For example: 
 
    $ docker-compose scale web=2 worker=3 
 
This command is deprecated. Use the up command with the `--scale` flag 
instead. 
 
Usage: scale [options] [SERVICE=NUM...]
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml scale nginx=2 
WARNING: The scale command is deprecated. Use the up command with the --scale flag instead.

而且在创建多个容器时需要考虑端口及ip的监听状况(占用的情况)

start              Start services

stop               Stop services

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml stop db 
Stopping lnmp_db_1 ... done 
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml start db 
Starting db ... done

top:显示运行的进程

top                Display the running processes
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[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml top 
lnmp_db_1 
  UID       PID    PPID    C   STIME   TTY     TIME      CMD   
-------------------------------------------------------------- 
systemd+   38246   38223   7   23:27   ?     00:00:00   mysqld 
 
lnmp_nginx_1 
UID     PID    PPID    C   STIME   TTY     TIME                                   CMD                                
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
root   38367   38352   1   23:27   ?     00:00:00   nginx: master process /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -g daemon off; 
www    38421   38367   0   23:27   ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process                                            
 
lnmp_php_1 
UID     PID    PPID    C   STIME   TTY     TIME                                CMD                            
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
root   38208   38186   0   23:27   ?     00:00:00   php-fpm: master process (/usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf) 
www    38307   38208   0   23:27   ?     00:00:00   php-fpm: pool www                                         
www    38308   38208   0   23:27   ?     00:00:00   php-fpm: pool www  
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指定某一个service:

[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml top nginx 
lnmp_nginx_1 
UID     PID    PPID    C   STIME   TTY     TIME                                   CMD                                
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
root   38367   38352   0   23:27   ?     00:00:00   nginx: master process /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -g daemon off; 
www    38421   38367   0   23:27   ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process 

version:显示docker-compose的版本信息:

version            Show the Docker-Compose version information
[root@docker lnmp]# docker-compose -f lnmp.yaml version 
docker-compose version 1.17.0, build ac53b73 
docker-py version: 2.5.1 
CPython version: 2.7.13 
OpenSSL version: OpenSSL 1.0.1t  3 May 2016

docker-compose命令运行的级别在service层,而如果需要对容器进行修改等操作还是运行docker命令方便


本文参考链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/maohuidong/p/9914801.html